Molecular characterisation of the 22q13 deletion syndrome supports the role of haploinsufficiency of SHANK3/PROSAP2 in the major neurological symptoms.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.
Methods: The 22q13 deletion syndrome (MIM 606232) is characterised by moderate to profound mental retardation, delay/absence of expressive speech, hypotonia, normal to accelerated growth, and mild dysmorphic features. We have determined the deletion size and parent of origin in 56 patients with this syndrome.
Results: Similar to other terminal deletion syndromes, there was an overabundance of paternal deletions. The deletions vary widely in size, from 130 kb to over 9 Mb; however all 45 cases that could be specifically tested for the terminal region at the site of SHANK3 were deleted for this gene. The molecular structure of SHANK3 was further characterised. Comparison of clinical features to deletion size showed few correlations. Some measures of developmental assessment did correlate to deletion size; however, all patients showed some degree of mental retardation and severe delay or absence of expressive speech, regardless of deletion size.
Conclusion: Our analysis therefore supports haploinsufficiency of the gene SHANK3, which codes for a structural protein of the postsynaptic density, as a major causative factor in the neurological symptoms of 22q13 deletion syndrome.
Journal of medical genetics 2003;40;8;575-84
Terminal 22q deletion syndrome: a newly recognized cause of speech and language disability in the autism spectrum.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Medical Genetics, H-315, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5208, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: Cryptic subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements account for 6% to 10% of idiopathic mental retardation. As cytogenetic and molecular techniques have become more sophisticated, the number of genetic syndromes attributed to these microdeletions has increased. To date, 64 patients have been described in the literature with a more recently recognized microdeletion syndrome, del 22q13.3. The purpose of this study is to present 11 new cases of this recently described syndrome to delineate further the phenotype and to alert the clinician to another genetic condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of early hypotonia, delayed speech acquisition, and autistic behavior.
Methods: Eleven patients were evaluated in 3 academic institutions. Clinical features and results of cytogenetic testing were recorded and tabulated. Reasons for referral for genetic evaluation included developmental delay, severe expressive speech and language delay, and dysmorphic features.
Results: Age of presentation ranged from 5 months to 46 years. There were 10 female patients and 1 male patient. All of the patients exhibited delayed motor development, some degree of hypotonia, and severe expressive speech and language delay. Dysmorphic facial features included epicanthal folds, large cupped ears, underdeveloped philtrum, loss of cupid's bow, and full supraorbital ridges. Six patients exhibited autistic-like behaviors. Microscopically visible chromosome deletions were observed in 6 patients. In the remainder, the deletion was detected with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Conclusions: Hypotonia and developmental delay are nonspecific findings observed in many malformation and genetic syndromes. However, in association with severe speech and language delay and autistic-like behavior, this phenotype may be a significant indication to consider the 22q13 deletion syndrome as a potential cause.
Molecular characterisation of patients with subtelomeric 22q abnormalities using chromosome specific array-based comparative genomic hybridisation.
1Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
The 22q13 deletion syndrome is associated with global developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and generalised hypotonia. In this study, the size and nature of 22q13 deletions (n=9) were studied in detail by high-resolution chromosome specific array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). The deletion sizes varied considerably between the different patients, that is, the largest deletion spanning 8.4 Mb with the breakpoint mapping to 22q13.2 and the smallest deletion spanning 3.3 Mb with the breakpoint mapping to 22q13.31. In one case, a unique subtelomeric 3.9 Mb deletion associated with a 2.0 Mb duplication of 22q13 was observed, adding to a growing number of similar cases identified for other chromosome ends. Remarkably, this patient had signs suggestive of retinitis pigmentosa, which has never been reported before in the 22q13 deletion syndrome. The identification of two pairs of recurrent proximal breakpoints on 22q13 suggests that these specific regions may be prone to recombination, due to yet unknown genome architectural features. In addition to the copy number changes on 22q13, a duplication of approximately 330 kb on 22q11.1 was observed and shown to be a genetic large-scale copy number variation without clinical consequences. The current study failed to reveal relationships between the clinical features and the deletion sizes. Global developmental delay and absent or severely delayed speech were observed in all patients, whereas hypotonia was present in 89% of the cases (8/9). This study underscores the utility of array CGH for characterising the size and nature of subtelomeric deletions, such as monosomy 22q13, and underlines the considerable variability in deletion size in the 22q13 deletion syndrome regardless of the clinical phenotype.
European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2005;13;9;1019-24
Identification of a recurrent breakpoint within the SHANK3 gene in the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.
Introduction: The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (MIM 606232) is characterised by neonatal hypotonia, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, global developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. We report the molecular characterisation of the deletion breakpoint in two unrelated chromosome 22q13.3 deletion cases.
Methods: The deletions were characterised by FISH, checked for other abnormalities by array-CGH, and confirmed by Real-Time PCR, and finally the breakpoints were cloned, sequenced, and compared.
Results: Both cases show the cardinal features of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome associated with a deletion involving the last 100 kb of chromosome 22q13.3. The cases show a breakpoint within the same 15 bp repeat unit, overlapping the results obtained by Wong and colleagues in 1997 and suggesting that a recurrent deletion breakpoint exists within the SHANK3 gene. The direct repeat involved in these 22q13 deletion cases is presumably able to form slipped (hairpin) structures, but it also has a strong potential for forming tetraplex structures.
Discussion: Three cases with a common breakpoint within SHANK3 share a number of common phenotypic features, such as mental retardation and developmental delay with severely delayed or absent expressive speech. The two cases presented here, having a deletion partially overlapping the commercial subtelomeric probe, highlight the difficulties in interpreting FISH results and suggest that many similar cases may be overlooked.
Journal of medical genetics 2006;43;10;822-8
Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders.
Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
SHANK3 (also known as ProSAP2) regulates the structural organization of dendritic spines and is a binding partner of neuroligins; genes encoding neuroligins are mutated in autism and Asperger syndrome. Here, we report that a mutation of a single copy of SHANK3 on chromosome 22q13 can result in language and/or social communication disorders. These mutations concern only a small number of individuals, but they shed light on one gene dosage-sensitive synaptic pathway that is involved in autism spectrum disorders.
Nature genetics 2007;39;1;25-7
Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome.
Cytogenetics Laboratory, Molecular Pathology Laboratory Network, 250 East Broadway, Maryville, TN 37804, USA. email@example.com
The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome) is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy). Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements. Individuals with deletion 22q13 should have routine examinations by the primary care physician as well as genetic evaluations with referral to specialists if neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, or other systemic problems are suspected. Affected individuals benefit from early intervention programs, intense occupational and communication therapies, adaptive exercise and sport programs, and other therapies to strengthen their muscles and increase their communication skills. No apparent life-threatening organic abnormalities accompany the diagnosis of deletion 22q13.
Orphanet journal of rare diseases 2008;3;14